台北當代藝術館 官方網站 Museum of Contemporary Art, Taipei

赤裸人 Naked Life

 
展覽名稱 Exhibit

赤裸人 Naked Life

展覽時間 Date

2006/12/03-2007/02/04

展覽地點 Venue

當代館主展場 MOCA Taipei

門票 Admission

新台幣50元,NTD 50

策展人 Curator

當代藝術大使館─徐文瑞、瑪蘭‧李西特

The Embassy of Contemporary Art ─ Manray Hsu and Maren Richter

參展藝術家 Artists

阿戴爾‧阿比丁、瑟爾傑‧布佳耶夫「亞非迦」、馬可‧拜爾、比克‧凡德柏、費南多‧珊雀斯‧卡斯蒂羅、張乾琦、陳界仁、大崙尾藝術工作隊、 阿郎‧迪克拉赫、柯肯‧爾貢、咸京我、古納拉‧卡斯馬伊娃/穆拉貝克‧朱瑪利也夫、木村亮太、吉兒‧馬濟德、艾蓮歐諾‧德‧蒙特斯丘、賈姬‧沙隆恩、麥克斯‧史崔瑟、亞列宏卓‧維戴爾、克萊門斯‧馮‧維登麥爾、黃海昌、楊俊、YKON

Adel ABIDIN (Iraq), Sergei BUGAEV ”Afrika”(Russia), Marc BIJL (Holland), Bik van der Pol (Holland), Fernando Sánchez CASTILLO (Spain), CHANG Chien-Chih (Taiwan), CHEN Chieh-Jen (Taiwan), Da Lun Wei Art Squad (Taiwan), Alain DECLERCQ (France), Koken ERGUN (Turkey), Kyungah HAM (South Korea), Gulnara KASMALJEVA and Muratbek DJUMAUEV (Kyrgyzstan), Ryota KIMURA (Japan), Jill MAGID (USA), Eléonore de MONTESQUIOU (France), Jackie SALLOUM (USA), Max STREICHER (Canada), Alejandro VIDAL (Spain), Clemens von WEDEMEYER (Germany), WONG Hoy-cheong (Malaysia), Jun YANG (Austria), YKON (Finland)

貼心小叮嚀 Note

本展適合闔家觀賞 This exhibition is for general public.

展覽介紹 About the Exhibition

「赤裸人」探討全球化時代下,為了反恐、疆界管制、遏止非法人口流動、確保國土安全、避免社會動亂,一種隱性的、常態性的、世界性的戒嚴或例外狀態,儼然已經變成人們日常的生存方式。人,在政治權利與法律保護隨時可能被剝奪的情況下,已經變成了赤裸人。

「赤裸人」的概念,主要來自當代義大利哲學家阿岡本 (Giorgio Agamben),他認為,「赤裸人」就是被國家主權以「例外狀態」(state of exception)或「戒嚴」 (state of emergency)等理由,加以驅逐或監禁的人,這些人雖然具有自然生命,但是卻因各項公民權被剝奪,而喪失存在的政治與社會意義。

不過,現代國家的例外狀態,早已在各式各樣的法律及社會控制機制下,成為一種「政治常態」。更重要的是,國家主權所具備的這項特殊權力,已內化為集體的日常意識,透過教育成長和社會化過程,身分證、護照、各項證件,以及科技的和社會的監控機制,「赤裸」已經成為普世人類的生存狀態。

本展邀請來自16個國家共22組藝術家,展出27件作品。呈現方式包含錄像、攝影、電影、檔案、海報、表演、裝置、互動科技、數位媒體等,探尋在已開發、開發中或落後國家中赤裸人的身影,讓我們看到一個經由全球資本與國家主權的運作與效應所展現出來的生命政治光譜,重新審視一些與我們日常生活切身相關的面向,例如冷戰、反恐戰爭、後殖民、威權統治與革命、社會運動、種族主義、監控、邊界管制下的旅遊、勞工、移民、非正式經濟裡勞動人口、言 論自由、社會監控,以及這些現象對身分認同、語言、恐懼文化、個人歷史等的影響。

Naked Life explores a specific mode of existence in the age of globalization: thanks to anti-terrorism, border control, home­land security and the prevention of social anomaly, a clandestine, permanent, world-wide state of exception has prevailed in our everyday life. Human beings, under constant threat of being stripped off political rights and legal protec­tion, have become bare life.

Naked life is a concept popularized for its current usage by Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben. It refers to the status of those who are exiled, imprisoned or ''camped" by the state sovereignty in the name of''a state of exception" or ''state of emergency". While maintaining a biological existence, a naked life is a life stripped of all political rights and legal protection and thus bereft of social and political significance. In modernity, however, the state of exception has become a political normality under various legal and social mechanisms.

The exhibition features 22 artists and groups from 16 countries, including Austria, Canada, Germany, Finland, France, Holland, Iraq, Japan, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, South Korea, Russia, Spain, Turkey, USA and Taiwan. Using video, photography, archive, posters, performance, installations, interactive technology as well as digital media, the 27 works exhibited portray images of naked life in developed, develop­ing, and under-developed countries, projecting a bio-political spectrum under the operation and effects of state sover­eignty and global capital. Together they offer an array of analyses on different aspects of everyday life, ranging from cold war, anti-terror war, post-colonial conditions, post- authoritarianism, aspirations for revolution, social move­ments, racism, surveillance, and the situations of tourism, labor, immigration and informal economy in the face of border controls, to the impacts these phenomena have on the formation of identity, language, a culture of fear and personal history.

策展論述 Curatorial Statement

 

為赤裸生命做的展覽

文/徐文瑞、瑪蘭•李西特

「赤裸人」(naked life,或bare life,或譯 「裸命」),係指沒有受到政治權利與法律保護 的生命狀態,但這生命並沒有因為這樣,而只是 以孑然的生物性生命存在著,相反的,他依然無 法脱離政治與法律的網絡,法律的力量仍然在他 的身上發生作用。這樣的生命狀態,並非只是被 法律排拒在外的少數人所面臨的特殊處境,而是 生活在現代國家中的所有人所面對的一般狀況。

赤裸生命的概念,在二十世紀的政治討論中,受到許多思想家的關注,例如漢娜鄂蘭 (Hannah Arendt)在她的《極權主義的起源》一書中,剖析了無國籍難民的處境:被剝奪公民權和人權的赤裸狀態。近十多年來,義大利哲學家阿岡本更進一步以這個概念為核心,試圖重新界定現代主權國家的政治,以及當代人類所面臨的基本生存狀態。阿岡本區分人類生命的兩個面向 :自然生命(希臘文zoe)與政治生命(希臘文 bios)。所謂的「赤裸人」就處在這兩種生命的分裂狀態中。他以羅馬法中Homo Sacer (「牲徒」 或「受譴咒的人」)的定義來説明赤裸人。Homo Sacer是因為犯罪而被法律所放逐的人,但這種人卻處在一種吊詭中:一方面社會透過法律才將其 加以放逐,剝奪其作為「公民」的一切權利,人人得而誅之,赤裸裸地活著,隨時可以受死。另 一方面這個法律卻也為他賦予一種特殊身分認同,亦即Homo Sacer的另一個意義,「在聖域的人」,因而無法在儀式典禮中被拿來當作犠牲。 因此,法律剝奪其政治意義後,赤裸人仍然活在法律的力量之下,對他而言,法律變成了純粹的暴力。用現代國家的理念來看,赤裸人就是被國家主權以例外狀態(the state of exception)或戒嚴 (the state of emergency)之名,加以驅逐的人,他們雖然具有自然生命,但其生命卻隨著各項公權的剝奪,也喪失了政治意義。然而,他們和這個 主權的關聯卻未中斷,隨時暴露在死亡的威脅下,必須想盡辦法逃離或欺瞞這個主權。在這個意義下,正如流亡者與亡命之徒都知道的,他們的生命比任何人都還「政治」(1)。

阿岡本認為,在現代性中,最原始的政治關係是「驅逐」,因為國家主權擁有擱置法律並宣稱例外狀態的力量,主權站在法律之內,也站在法律之外,它站在排除與容納之間的無差別地帶。主權的最基本活動是製造「裸命」或「赤裸人」,使赤裸生命成為最根本的政治單元,也是區分自然與文化、生物生命與政治生命的臨界點。而今天,西方世界最基本的生命政治典範是 納粹集中營或關達納摩拘留營的「營所」,而不是古代政治(politics)所根據的「城市」(polis) (2)。

阿岡本進一步透過二十世紀歷史的分析,指 出現代國家的例外狀態,其實是一種常態,從納粹及各式各樣的極權統治,到911之後美國所實 施的「愛國法案」和關達納摩拘留營,以及模範 民主國家(如法國、德國、英國)所施行的臨時戒 嚴,都顯示主權者藉由虛張聲勢的例外狀態,把 政治逐漸轉變為行政統治的現象。在常態化的例 外狀態中,當代公民的基本生存模式不是自由主 義所設定的自主個人,而是納粹集中營裡的猶太 人,或反恐拘留營中的穆斯林,一種赤裸狀態。

這種常態化的例外狀態最明顯而細腻的運作方式,可以從法國哲學家傅柯所謂的「生命-權力」(bio-power)或「生命-政治」(bio-politics)來瞭解。傅柯認為,現代主權國家對待人民的權力運作,不同於傳統以死亡威脅的主權機制;現代國家的「生命政治」強調生命的保護與維護,而非以死亡為威脅,因此著重在身體的管制,透過醫療、專家、資訊等,以確保健康、遺傳、家庭、血統、幸福人生等,從而開發優生學、公共 安全、都市環境、公共衛生、國家種族主義等權 力機制(3)。在阿岡本看來,生命政治中的死亡威脅與生命維護,其實是一體的兩面,透過紀律與法律在特定國土內進行管制,並加以維護的秩序,必須配合著國境內的安全來加以保障,並掌控失序的狀態。阿岡本的例外狀態常態化之説,試圖指出現代國家的發展趨勢,是國土安全逐漸變成國家主權活動的最重要原則,而一旦安全變成了國家的主要任務,以及正當性的主要來源,國家就會變成一個非常脆弱的有機體,隨時可能受到恐怖主義的挑爨,而自己變成一種國家的恐怖主義,並容易訴諸例外狀態來避免失序的產生(4)。

例如,十九世紀利用生理人類學所開發出來的身份辨識系統,主要是應用在罪犯身上,如今,卻傾向應用到所有公民,把全民置於常態的監控與懷疑之下。「政治的身體從而變成了罪犯的身體』。2004年阿岡本拒絕前往美國做一場演講,抗議美國以反恐為由,要求所有進入美國的外國人必須在機場海關按指紋列入檔案。他認為此舉奪取了他個人的生物辨識(biometric) 資訊,強制他進入赤裸狀態,無異於二次大戰時 期納粹對猶太人進行政治刺青。

最重要的是,國家主權所具備的這項特殊權 力,已經內化成為集體的日常意識,從小孩出生開始,透過教育成長和社會化過程,和身分證、 護照、各項信任狀,以及科技的和社會的監控機制,使「赤裸人」變成文化與社會心理學的一般概念。尤其是911恐怖攻擊以後,以美國為首的國際社會,除了在伊拉克戰爭議題上互相較勁外,全面展開一系列以反恐和國土安全為由的措施,加強邊界管制(例如機場安檢程序愈加繁複)、限制言論自由、侵犯個人隱私(例如情報 單位篩檢網路上的言行紀錄)與強化犯罪監控等,使世界各地瀰漫一種恐懼文化,形成一波新 的全球性的戒嚴狀態。

如民主國家以維護社會秩序之名,於街頭佈滿電眼CCTV監控社會成員、對入出境旅客嚴格的盤查、以及書刊審查與分級制度;或因為冷戰或戒嚴時期,被迫消失在地圖上的城市與失去身分的人民;再如夢想淘金、被迫投入他者文本的新移工,不得不接受更嚴密的監控,往往不在國家主權的保護之列,法律成為暴力而非保護的工具。易言之,為了反恐、疆界管制、遏止非法人口流動、確保國土安全、避免社會動亂,一種隱性的、常態性的、世界性的例外狀態,儼然已經變成人們日常的生存方式。

「赤裸人」這個展覽從赤裸生命的角度出發,試圖經由國家主權的運作與效應所展現出來的政治光譜,重新審視一些與我們日常生活切身相關的面向,例如冷戰、後殖民、威權統治與革命、社會運動、種族主義、邊界管制下的旅遊、移民勞工、非正式經濟裡勞動人口、言論自由、社會監控,以及這些現象對身份認同、語言、恐 懼心理、個人歷史等的影響。來自不同國家或地區的藝術家,各自以他們親身的經驗或在地的歷史處境為立足點,以不同的媒材和創作手法,考察當代人的赤裸狀態。

1.  Giorgio Agamben, HOMO SACER: Sovereign Power and Bare Life, 1998, Stanford University Press.

2.  Ibid.

3.  Michel Foucault, Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collége de France 1975-1976, translated by David Macey, 2003, Picador: New York. The History of Sexuality: An Introduction., translated by R. Hurley. 1980. Vintage Books: New York.

4.  Giorgio Agamben, "On Security and Terror,” http://www.makeworlds.org/node/120.

On the Exhibition for Naked Life

By Manray Hsu, Maren Richter

“Naked life" (or “bare life”) refers to the state of life without the protection of political rights and the law. This life, however, does not conse­quently lead a biological existence in solitude. On the contrary, he or she is still unable to escape the legal and political networks and the law continues to operate on his or her life. Such a condition is not simply suffered by the handful of individuals excluded by law, but in fact a general situation faced by everyone in the modern nation-state.

The concept of “naked life” has been the focus of debates among numerous thinkers in the twentieth century. In “The Origins of Totalitari­anism” Hannah Arendt examines the status of stateless refugees: a kind of nakedness in which they are stripped of civil and human rights. Over the last decade, the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben has further developed the concept in an attempt to redefine the politics of modern sovereign states and the basic existential condi­tions of contemporary humanity. Agamben distinguishes two aspects of human life: natural biological life (in Greek “zoe”) and political life (in Greek “bios”). “Naked life” exists within the schism between these two aspects. Agamben uses the Roman legal concept of “Homo Sacer” to help delineate naked life.(1) Homo Sacer refers to those who are exiled by law for committing a crime, yet find themselves in a paradoxical situation. On the one hand, society banishes them through the application of law, stripping them of all civil rights, and anyone has the right to kill them. In its bareness, this life is constantly under the threat of death. On the other hand, the law affords Homo Sacer a special identity as a “sacred man”, which forbids him from being sacrificed in a religious ritual. In this sense, even though the law has stripped away his political significance, naked life continues to exist under the force of law. For him, the law has become a pure violence. From the perspec­tive of the modern nation-state, naked life refers to those expelled by the sovereign state in the name of the state of exception or emergency. Although they continue to possess biological life, that life loses political significance as a result of being stripped of all civil rights. Nevertheless, their relationship to the sovereign is not severed, they are exposed to the threat of death at any time, making it necessary to seek ways to escape or deceive the sovereign. Under these circumstances, as any exile or someone ‘on- the-run' knows, life is in fact as “political” as can be.(2)

Agamben argues that the most primordial political relationship in modernity is that of “exile.” For the sovereign state has the power to suspend the law and declare a state of exception; it stands both inside and outside the law, in a zone of indistinction between inclusion and exclusion. The most basic activity of the sover­eign is to manufacture “naked life,” making it the most fundamental political unit and the critical point for the differentiation between nature and culture, biological life and political life. Today, the most fundamental bio-political paradigm in the western world is the Nazi concentration camps or the “detention centre” of Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, not the “polis” on which classical politics is based.(3)

Through an analysis of the twentieth century history, Agamben further points out that the state of exception employed by modern sovereign states is in fact anything but an exception. This can be traced from the Nazis and various totalitarian regimes to the post-911 “Patriot Act” and Guantanamo Bay detention centre and the temporary states of emergency imposed by such “model” democratic countries as France, Germany and the UK. All of these are examples of the way in which the sovereign state shows its penchant for imposing “exceptions,” gradually transforming politics into little more than administrative rule or rule by decree. Indeed, as a result of this generalized state of exception, the basic model for the existence of modern citizens is not the autonomous individual of liberal theory, but the Jews in Nazi concentration camps or Muslims held in anti-terrorist detention centres - a condition of bare life.

The clearest and most subtle ways in which this normalized state of exception operates are perhaps best explicated through Michel Foucault’s idea of “bio-power” or “bio-politics.” He maintained that modern sovereign states exert power over people differently than traditional sovereign mechanisms which tended to rely on the threat of death. In modern countries, “bio-politics” highlights the protection and maintenance of life, as opposed to threats of death, and thus focuses on the control of the body through such channels as medical care, experts and information, to ensure health, inheri­tance, family, blood lineage, well-being etc. This leads to the development of various power mechanisms including eugenics, public safety, urban environment, public health and national racism.(4) In Agamben's view the threat of death and the maintenance of life inherent in bio-­politics are two sides of the same coin, namely the use of discipline and law to control people within specific geographical boundaries and maintain order, which can only be guaranteed in line with internal security to avoid anomaly. His theory of the normalized state of exception is an attempt to point out that the transform homeland security into the most important principle of sovereign activities. Once security becomes the primary task of the state and the main source of legitimacy, the state becomes an extremely fragile organism that can be easily challenged by terrorism, and develop itself into a form of terrorist state, ready to appeal to the state of exception as a way of avoiding disorder.(5)

For example, in the nineteenth century, identity recognition systems developed in the field of physical anthropology were mainly used against criminals. Today the trend is to apply these systems to all citizens, putting the whole population under permanent surveillance and suspicion: “From this moment on the body politic becomes the body criminal.” In 2004, Agamben refused to speak in the United States in protest against the US government's requirement that all foreigners arriving in the country are finger­printed at the airport, in the name of anti­terrorism. This act, he suggested, will take away his biometric data and thereby force him into a naked condition, not unlike the political tattoos the Nazis forced on the Jews during World War II.

Most importantly, the special power ascribed to the sovereign state has been internalized as everyday collective consciousness. This process begins with birth and continues with education and socialization, through the usage of national ID cards, passports and various certificates as well as technological and social surveillance systems, thus turning “naked life” into a concept in the fields of culture and social psychology. Ever since the terrorist attacks of 911 and despite disagreements over the invasion of Iraq, the US-led international community has launched a comprehensive series of “anti-terrorist” and “homeland security” measures, by strengthening border controls (for instance, complicating security checks at the airports), restricting freedom of speech, encroaching on individual privacy (for instance, intelligence services screening online behaviour) and increasing criminal supervision. As a result, a culture of fear has spread around the world, creating a new global state of emergency.

In the name of maintaining social order, democratic societies install CCTV systems on every street to spy on their citizens, increase inspection on those entering and leaving the country, or impose censorship and grading on published materials. In cities that disappeared from official maps, people who lost their identi­ties during the Cold War or during a state of emergency. Migrant workers, seeking to make their fortune and forced into the other’s social textures, cannot but accept stricter supervision and are often excluded from the protection of the sovereign state, and law is therefore a tool of violence, not protection. In order to fight terror­ism, control borders, stem illegal population flows, ensure homeland security and avoid social chaos, a clandestine, permanent and world-wide state of exception has prevailed in our everyday life.

Looking through the lenses of “naked life”, this exhibition attempts to re-examine several aspects of daily life under the political spectrum created by the operations and effects of the sovereign power. Examples range from the Cold War, post colonialism, authoritarian rule and revolu­tion, social movements, racism, to tourism in the face of border control, migrant labourers, informal economy, freedom of speech, social surveillance and the impact these phenomena have on identity, language, psychology of fear, personal history etc. Artists from different countries and regions with their own personal experiences and local histories, by means of different materials and creative methods, are invited to take a look at the naked­ness of contemporary life.

1.  Homo sacer (Latin for “the sacred man”) is an obscure figure of Roman law:a person who is banned, may be killed by anybody, but may not be sacrificed in a religious ritual. The person is excluded from all civil rights, while his/her life is deemed “holy” in a negative sense.

2. Giorgio Agamben, HOMO SACERSovereign Power and Bare Life, 1998, Stanford University Press.

3. Ibid.

4. Michel Foucault, Society Must Be DefendedLectures at the Collége de France 1975-1976, translated by David Macey, 2003, Picador: New York. The History of SexualityAn Introduction., translated by R. Hurley. 1980. Vintage Books: New York.

5.  Giorgio Agamben, “On Security and Terror,” http://www.makeworlds.org/node/120.

作品介紹 About the Artworks

 

阿戴爾‧阿比丁 Adel ABIDIN

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瑟爾傑‧布佳耶夫「亞非迦」Sergei BUGAEV ”Afrika”

馬可‧拜爾 Marc BIJL

比克‧凡德柏 Bik van der Pol

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大崙尾藝術工作隊 Da Lun Wei Art Squad

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阿郎‧迪克拉赫 Alain DECLERCQ

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咸京我 Kyungah HAM

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木村亮太 Ryota KIMURA

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艾蓮歐諾‧德‧蒙特斯丘 Eléonore de MONTESQUIOU

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黃海昌 WONG Hoy-cheong

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楊俊 Jun YANG

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YKON

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