台北當代藝術館 官方網站 Museum of Contemporary Art, Taipei

首頁 展覽資訊

展覽名稱 Exhibit

「失重樂園-河口洋一郎的衍化論」

 Zero-Gravity Paradise : Kawaguchi Yoichiro's Algorithmic Evolution

展覽時間 Date

2017/04/22-2017/06/18

展覽地點 Venue

台北當代藝術館 MOCA Taipei

門票 Admission

NT50

參展藝術家 Artists

河口洋一郎 Kawaguchi Yoichiro

展覽介紹 About the Exhibition

「失重樂園-河口洋一郎的衍化論」

 Zero-Gravity Paradise : Kawaguchi Yoichiro's Algorithmic Evolution

 

世界的和諧顯現在形式和數量上,自然哲學的心與靈、以及所有的詩韻都包含在數學美學的概念中。」

— 《生長與型態》達西.湯普森

For the harmony of the world is made manifest in Form and Number, and the heart and soul and all the poetry of Natural Philosophy are embodied in the concept of mathematical beauty. 

On Growth and Form, D'Arcy W. Thompson

 

河口洋一郎曾任教於日本筑波大學藝術學系、東京大學研究所工學系人工物工學研究中心。自2000年擔任東京大學研究所情報學環教授。在電腦尚未普及的1970年代,河口洋一郎便開始撰寫程式語言、製作電腦繪圖。1976年著手開發電腦模擬生命體細胞自我繁衍、增殖的「成長模型 (Growth Model) 」,並於1982年在國際動畫盛會SIGGRAPH首次發表。由於「成長模型」含括人工生命的初始概念,前衛的觀點在當時造成了轟動,河口洋一郎也成為首位SIGGRAPH獲獎的亞洲人。1995年獲選為威尼斯雙年展日本館代表藝術家之一,正式將電腦藝術帶進當代藝術的領域。2013年,河口洋一郎更獲國家頒發藝術選獎文部科學大臣賞,被授予紫綬勳章之殊榮。

Kawaguchi Yoichiro was once a professor at the School of Art and Design, the University of Tsukuba and the Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo. Since 2000, he has been a professor at the Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, the University of Tokyo. In the 1970s, before computer became widely accessible, Kawaguchi had already started programming and creating computer graphics animation. In 1976, he delved into the development of Growth Model, a computer programming project that aimed to simulate the propagation and proliferation of organic cells; the results of this project were first published at the renowned international event of computer animation, SIGGRAPPH. Because Growth Model was integrated with the initial concept of artificial life, its innovative and advanced perspective caused a sensation at the time, making Kawaguchi the first Asian artist awarded by SIGGRAPH. In 1995, he was appointed one of the representative artists of Japanese Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, marking the official beginning of introducing computer art into contemporary art. In 2013, He received the Award from the Ministry of Education in the Art Encouragement Prizes and Medal with Purple Ribbon. 

 

河口洋一郎生於鹿兒島縣南方的亞熱帶島嶼—種子島,此島也是日本最大的航太研究與太空發射中心。河口洋一郎的年少時期就是在白天於山林溪谷採集昆蟲植物、夜裡仰望浩瀚星空,幻想著一場又一場的宇宙冒險中度過。爾後,河口洋一郎進入九州藝術工科大學,開啟了學習電腦繪圖的契機。抱持著對五億年前寒武紀生命大爆發及五億年後宇宙間外星生命狀態的濃厚興趣,河口洋一郎進而思考:「如何運用電腦繪圖,從無到有地生成一個仿生物體,並讓『它』擁有自我成長的能力?」同時,蘇格蘭生物學家達西•湯普森的名作《生長與型態》中,以數學和物理的概念來解釋生物現象,深刻地影響了河口洋一郎;而印度哲學家阿蘭達•考馬拉斯瓦米在《自然在藝術中的嬗變》中,提及對「契似」的概念,則對應了河口洋一郎在創作上不僅是對生物造型進行視覺的模擬,也注入了生命的脆弱性與時間性等抽象元素。「失重樂園—河口洋一郎的衍化論」則是展現了藝術家近三十年來運用先端的新媒體科技,重新演繹原始自然生命狀態的研究歷程及成果結晶。

Kawaguchi was born on Tanegashima, a subtropical island in the Kagoshima Prefecture. The island also houses Japan's largest aerospace research and space launching center. Kawaguchi spent his childhood and adolescence on the island, collecting insects and plants in the woods and by the rivers in daytime and gazing into the vast starry sky at night, fantasizing all kinds of space adventures. Later, Kawaguchi entered Kyushu Institute of Design, where he began studying computer graphics. Fascinated by the Cambrian Explosion occurred around 500 million years ago and possible extraterrestrial life forms in the universe around 500 million years later, Kawaguchi had been pondering on the question: "How can one employ computer graphics to create a bionic life form and give 'it' the ability to grow by itself?" As he explored this question, he became profoundly influenced by how D'Arcy W. Thompson employed mathematical and physical concepts to explain biological phenomena in his famous work, On Growth and Form. In addition, the concept of Sadrsya (resemblance, or visual correspondence) discussed in The Transformation of Nature in Art by the Indian philosopher, Ananda Coomaraswamy, not only corresponded to the visual simulation of organic forms in Kawaguchi's work, it also enabled him to incorporate abstract elements such as the fragility and temporality of life into his work. Zero-Gravity Paradise: Kawaguchi Yoichiro's Algorithmic Evolution features how Kawaguchi has employed advanced new media technology to re-interpret natural life and its various states along with the artist's fruitful research and results in nearly three decades. 

 

本展鋪陳了河口洋一郎的創作軌跡,精要呈現多元的創意表現及其連結脈絡;從設置於當代館大門前方的大型珊瑚狀雕塑《成長模型》開始,引領觀眾窺探藝術家獨特的創作表現和細膩的生命觀察。本展包括兩個主題架構:一樓展示了以河口洋一郎「成長模型」作為基礎所發展的各種藝術面貌;從靜態的塗鴉手稿到電腦程式的實驗、高畫質電腦繪圖、與實體雕塑及互動感應裝置。二樓則呈現藝術家在90年代至今以「人工生命」為命題的各式創作,顯現出與早期作品截然不同的面貌;觀眾不僅能一睹日本傳統文化與河口洋一郎電腦影像的創意混搭,還能參與藝術家精心規劃的互動項目。「失重樂園—河口洋一郎的衍化論」同時體現了生命的感性與數學的理性,這兩個看似互悖的世界,藉由現代科技的力量竟能巧妙地結合、共存,進而對人類的社會帶來更多的可能性,這便是河口洋一郎電腦藝術創作獨特的魅力所在。

The exhibition reveals Kawaguchi's artistic journey, encapsulating his diversified creative work and its context. From the large coral-like sculpture, Growth, displayed at the entrance of the museum, audience is led into Kawaguchi's extraordinary world of artistic creation and perceptive observations on life. Meanwhile, the theme of this exhibition is twofold: on view on the museum's 1st floor are artworks derived from Growth Model, which range from sketches and drafts, experiments done with computer programming, hi-definition CG animation, to sculptures and interactive installations. On the 2nd floor, audience can see a wide spectrum of artworks based on the topic of "Artificial Life" dating from the 1990s until today. These works are utterly different from those of the early period. While viewing the creative integration of traditional Japanese culture and Kawaguchi's computer graphic images, audience can also take pleasure in the interactive work elaborately designed by the artist. Zero-Gravity Paradise: Kawaguchi Yoichiro's Algorithmic Evolution illustrates life's sensibility and mathematical rationality. The two seemingly contradictory realms are ingeniously integrated in unison via modern technology, introducing more potentiality for humanity and the society. This is precisely where the unique charm of Kawaguchi's computer art resides.

 

參展藝術家 About the Artists

藝術家介紹 Artist Introduction

河口洋一郎 Kawaguchi Yoichiro

河口洋一郎曾任教於日本筑波大學藝術學系、東京大學研究所工學系人工物工學研究中心。自2000年擔任東京大學研究所情報學環教授至今。在電腦尚未普及的1970年代,河口洋一郎便開始撰寫程式語言、製作電腦繪圖。1976年著手開發以電腦模擬生命體細胞自我繁衍、增殖的「成長模型(Growth Model)」,並於1982年在國際動畫盛會SIGGRAPH首次發表。由於「成長模型」含括人工智能的初始概念,前衛的觀點在當時造成了轟動,河口洋一郎也成為首位SIGGRAPH獲獎的亞洲人。1995年獲選為威尼斯雙年展日本館代表藝術家,正式將電腦藝術帶進當代藝術的領域。2013年,河口洋一郎更獲國家頒發藝術選獎文部科學大臣賞,被授予紫綬勳章之殊榮。

Kawaguchi Yoichiro was a professor at the School of Art and Design, the University of Tsukuba and the Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo. Since 2000, he has been a professor at the Interfaculty Initiative in Information Studies, the University of Tokyo. In the 1970s, before computer became widely accessible, Kawaguchi had already started programming and creating computer graphics animation. In 1976, he delved into the development of Growth Model, a computer programming project that aimed to simulate the propagation and proliferation of organic cells; the results of this project were first published at the renowned international event of computer animation, SIGGRAPPH. Because Growth Model was integrated with the initial concept of artificial intelligence, its innovative and advanced perspective caused a sensation at the time, making Kawaguchi the first Asian artist awarded by SIGGRAPH. In 1995, he was appointed the representative artist of Japanese Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, marking the official beginning of introducing computer art into contemporary art. In 2013, he received the Award from the Ministry of Education in the Art Encouragement Prizes and Medal with Purple Ribbon.

作品介紹 About the Artworks

入口門廊 Entrance 

《成長模型》是河口洋一郎鎔鑄人類大腦心智的想像,與電腦人工智慧的藝術創造而具體化的作品之一。其獨特造型的視覺原創,是河口洋一郎依自然界生物生長的架構,經手稿形象化後,以電腦模擬生命體細胞自我繁衍、增殖的「成長模型」,讓圖形依據演化原理不斷地疊算,爾後又再各自地繁衍下去,這一自我複製的過程,演示了「成長模型」的原理指涉——亦即人工生物造型的生物學研究,雖為人工生命,卻含括了生物學裡生命的脆弱性與時間性。

Growth is one of the works that represents the physical embodiment and combination of Kawaguchi Yoichiro's imagination of living life and artificial intelligence. Its distinctive visual form originates from the artist's understanding of the structure of natural biological growth, which he first visualizes in drawings. He then runs simulation of the "growth model" on computer, basing the simulation on the propagation and reproduction of living cells, and keeps the image calculating and growing following the evolution principle. Each new growth also goes on propagating by itself. This process of self-reproduction demonstrates the principle of the "Growth Model"—although the biological research of artificial life forms is based on artificial life, it nevertheless incorporates the fragility and temporality of life described in biology.

 

自然法則中生命不僅有面對外在環境演化的堅韌面,也有自誕生→成長→消弱→死亡的脆弱性,為服膺生命的本質,河口洋一郎在電腦裡改變了參數的運算,使電腦也能表現出生物的脆弱性。而時間性方面:隨著生命的不同階段,他的造型時而美,時而詭奇得令人無法解讀,緣自河口洋一郎憑藉著表現純粹性美感的觀點,以及就對數螺旋的數理基礎,去思慮時間框架中,過去、現在、未來的生命姿態與造型變化。因此就造型之於生物的演化過程而言,我們所看到的僅是階段造型,也就是一個有邏輯性的片段。

In nature, life not only possesses resilient strength to face the external environment, it also displays its fragility in the cycle of birth, growth, decline, and death. To obey the intrinsic characteristics of life, Kawaguchi changes the parameter in the computer programming so that even computer can capture and represent the fragility of living organism. In terms of temporality, as the life he has created moves from one stage to another, its form is beautiful sometimes and strange at other times. It is because Kawaguchi has taken into consideration the expression of pure aesthetic beauty and the mathematical basis of logarithmic spiral to contemplate on the appearances and formal changes of life in the past, present and future. Therefore, in terms of the process of the biological evolution, what we see now is a temporary form, or a logical fragment.

 

將「成長模型」與「自然法則」中繁衍與演化的概念相較,兩者看起來似乎相似但本質上卻是相異的,如同印度哲學家阿蘭達•考馬拉斯瓦米(Ananda Coomaraswamy):提及對「契似」(sadrsya)的概念,即視覺上的相應。事實上,物與物象造型之間的相似不可能是本質上的,而必然是類比或範型意義上的,或兩者皆是。造型所模仿的,是物的理念或種類;理智之所以能認識物,無非是通過這一方面。造型所重現的,並不僅僅是感官所感受到的、物的實質。

The concept of propagation and evolution in Growth Model and the natural law might seem similar; yet, they are intrinsically different. Such difference reminds us of sadrsya, the concept of visual resemblance proposed by the Indian philosopher, Ananda Coomaraswamy. In truth, the resemblance between a thing and its formal appearance can never be that of an intrinsic nature but rather an analogous, paradigmatic one, or indeed both. The form copies the concept or category of the thing; this is how the mind recognizes a thing. What the form represents is not the actual substance of the thing that we perceive with our senses.

 

河口洋一郎將奧秘、不可思議的大自然造型原理,以數位的方式和科學的手段重新演繹並強調數學、科學、藝術與自然是並行無法分開的,試圖以數位心智敲擊人文精神的警鐘。因此,「成長模型」雖為數理的程式演算,實則建基於自然的宇宙觀、科學的方法論,以及電腦藝術的人文觀。

Through digital approaches and scientific means, the artist demonstrates the mysterious and incredible principle of the natural form, revealing the truth that mathematics, science, art, and nature are one and inseparable while bringing our attention to how the digital mind has impacted on the humanistic spirit. As a form of mathematical programming, Growth Model is constructed with a natural view of the cosmos, a scientific methodology, and the humanistic perspective of the computer art. 

《成長模型》Growth 

玻璃纖維 FRP

250x300x210 cm

2011


入口形象區 Entrance Hall

《失重樂園》可說是《蛋寶寶》的胚胎雛型。

從液態流衍的《失重樂園》到立體裝置的《蛋寶寶》,敘事了「成長模型」的生物演化與時間概念。畫面中就像是一個直向演化,有著多重觸手不斷蠕動的大型變種生物;在這裡,有許多浮游在空中的原生卵,彼此干擾互動,然後又會自體形成無數個隨機造型、各個外貌不一,卻又定向持續演化的小生命體。

Eggy can be seen as the embryonic prototype of Eggy Boy. 

From the fluid and changing image of Eggy to the three-dimensional installation Eggy Boy, a narrative unfolds, which reveals the biological evolution and concept of time in Growth Model. The image is like a vertical representation of evolution, showing large wriggling and mutating creatures with multiple tentacles. Floating in midair are many primary eggs, interfering and interacting with each other as they self-split into countless living cells with organic, unique forms that continuously. 

 

河口洋一郎希望《蛋寶寶》具備一個高密度生命體的型態,是一個比現有生物更加活躍生動、又兼具能動性的生命體,因此,他模擬了生命起源中維持生命所必需的有機化合物凝集狀態,一種液態流動的介質,其流動的頻率與流速,取決於化合物濃稠性的差異,是故在動畫一開場即能觀察到細緻的凹凸透明體經由光線的探照產生多重曲折、多重反射的效果。其濃豔的色澤、細膩的質感與變異的造型,有許多細密的層次肌理、互相交錯、纏繞,無論在造型上,甚至是細節處都染上了鮮紅的血液,彷彿呈現了生命的厚重感,在非恆定狀態下就像血液奔騰流動的生命體,充滿著野性的鮮活色彩。

Kawaguchi hopes that Eggy Boy can be a high-density life form, which is more lively and active than any existing creatures and demonstrates motility at the same time. Therefore, he simulates the organic compounds necessary to sustain life when life first begins. The flow rhythm and rate of this fluid and flowing medium depend on the density variation of the compounds. Therefore, at the beginning of the animation, audience can see exquisite transparent cells with uneven shapes, refracting and reflecting the light shining onto them. Their vibrant colors, exquisite texture, and varying forms are matched with refined, overlapping layers. Their plastic form and other details are in red - the color of blood - to give it a vivid sense of life. In the non-constant state, it is like blood has been rushing through these living organisms, creating a sense of nature's wildness.

《失重樂園》Eggy 

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

2min.57sec.

1990

 

《蛋寶寶》Eggy Boy

玻璃纖維 FRP

28 x 183 x 13 cm

共20件 20 pieces

2010


105展間 R105

此錄像中,蛋寶寶彷彿在無重力狀態中組構與解構、分解與重生,經電腦運算成無數幾何形碎片,魔幻般的生命從無到有地衍化出栩栩躍動的生命力,片刻又在分解後,化成一片彷彿在血液循環裡游動而再生的小蛋卵。原始版本的《蛋寶寶》由於運用了元球這個函數,表面的質感較為圓潤光滑。然而在這部影片中,河口洋一郎卻將《蛋寶寶》轉換成水晶質感並讓他閃閃發光。緣自於他對鑽石和水晶的結構感興趣,因為他們就像是建築般具有俐落美感。藉由這樣的轉換,希望《蛋寶寶》能永遠保有如水晶般閃耀的光澤。除了在四維空間裡靈活地搖頭晃腦,其通體晶亮呈現具穿透性的血紅身體,揭示電腦幻化人工生命的奇妙手法。

In this video, Eggy Boy seems to be living in a zero-gravity state of constant constructing, deconstructing, disintegrating, and regenerating. The innumerable geometric fragments are produced by computer programming. The magical life conveys a vivid sense of life as it is formed. Few moments later, it disintegrates into little Eggy that seems to swim and regenerate in the flowing blood. Eggy Boy was originally made of soft rounded shape by using a mathematical function - meatball. In this piece, Kawaguchi changed Eggy Boy into crystal –like texture due to his interest in crystal structure as architecture with neat schematic, and hoped that Eggy Boy can shine forever like a diamond. In addition to nimbly shaking its head in the four-dimensional space, Eggy Boy's crystal-like, blood-red body also reveals the fantastic mechanism of how computer creates artificial life.

 

除了電腦動畫的模擬,展間中《光點蛋寶寶》與《光點宇宙蝶》的LED裝置作品,透過觀看的距離,LED燈相應地也會呈現倏忽明暗的互動感應,如同人的世界也會因為接觸而有感知地對應產生。這些都是河口洋一郎想像的「外星人」,它們像有生命一般,生活在河口洋一郎想像的宇宙世界裡,看似充滿金屬質性的冰冷感,但卻是最具有原始的生物維度,這兩極的表現,符應了他用電腦科技模仿自然界的變化,最終卻又以人工的方式,透過精緻的手法將他們具體地再現出來。

Apart from the computer graphics, the LED installations, LED Eggy Boy and LED Bucco, are also on view in the gallery room. As audiences approach them, the LEDs blink to create interaction, serving as a reminder of how the human world senses contact and reacts to it. These works represent the "aliens" in Kawaguchi's imaginative world. Just like living Creatures, they live in the artist's imaginary universe. Through their apparent metallic coldness, the artist has captured the most primitive aspect of biology. The combination of the two opposites also corresponds to Kawaguchi's use of computer technology to imitate natural changes, finally re-creating these changes in concrete forms with exquisite techniques and through the artificial approach.



《蛋寶寶》 Eggy Boy(CG)

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

1 min.

2016

《光點蛋寶寶》 LED Eggy Boy

玻璃纖維, LED, 感應器 FRP, LED, Sensors

90x70x40 cm

2017


《光點宇宙蝶》LED Bucco  

玻璃纖維, LED, 感應器 FRP, LED, Sensors

90x70x40 cm

兩件 2 Pieces

2017


106拱門 R106 Arched Door

這件單頻道錄像,是河口洋一郎就物理和生物模擬研究的實錄。

紅球的落體重力撞擊水面而濺起的水花與晃動,以及碰撞而備受擠壓的水母,彷彿具有生命聲息一般地呼吸、彈倏、匍動著,體現德國哲學家萊布尼茲(Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz)曾想像的:「一滴水中蘊含了整個豐富的宇宙,而宇宙又包含了水滴,以此無盡循環下去。」而自然界生物奧妙的千姿百態如千足蟲與蜘蛛,緻密的細足,如何完美有序地驅使身軀匍匐蠕行,而爬行平地與坡台對身體與足的變異,又須經歷多少數理算式的流衍?另外,看似極為簡單個體的站立與前行,卻是經過了300次測試才體現出生物爬行時迅捷的驅動力。

The single channel video documents Kawaguchi Yoichiro’s research on simulation of physics and biology.

The splashes and movements created by the red ball falling into the water and the compressed jellyfish seem to be breathing, throbbing and creeping. This is a realization of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz previous imagination:The entire universe contained in a drop of water, while water drops exist within the universe, creating an unending cycle. There are infinite marvels in the natural world, for instance, how do the delicate and fine legs of millipedes and spiders support the forward movement of its body? How much mathematical equations are contained in the bodily changes when the creatures are climbing on a flat ground and uphill? In addition, the standing and forward movement may seem simple but in truth went through 300 tests to successfully display the swift force of creatures while crawling.

 

河口洋一郎貼近了電腦科技發展以來自線性轉折到數位階段;運用數理計算的電腦創作,在二維的作品中導入了光的參數,使它產生陰影,也就是一種著色或上色(shading)的運算,因此作品能呈現出具有3D的立體感。電腦上的數位圖像,其實是由許許多多細小的「像素(Pixels)」方塊所組成。每個小方塊能呈現16色、256色或全彩1.67千萬色以上。像素愈精細解析度愈高,像素的顆粒愈大,解析度也愈低。點陣圖影像(Bitmap images)和向量圖(Vector Graphics)就是用來記錄圖片的像素主要的兩種方式。向量產生線性的表現方式,因為光的參數,才讓畫面從2D轉變成具有3D的呈現效果。由此點出數位創作與繪畫創作不同的思維方式,如:表現一棵樹,繪畫創作就是畫出一棵樹,但數位藝術所慮想的是如何編寫程式,然後計算陰影,完全以演算法做為創作的基底,同時思考力學、色域編碼,或運動歷史紀錄形態表現的模擬力學等等,透過調整透鏡、示波器或錄像電子訊號的操作,才得以調整畫面、完成作品。

Kawaguchi Yoichiro witnessed the linear-to-digital transformation of computer technology. Using the mathematical calculation of computers, Kawaguchi applies a “sheltering” effect to create shadows in the two-dimensional works, giving them a three-dimensional appearance. In digital imaging, a pixel is a physical point in a raster image, so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Each Pixel can have 16 colors, 256 colors or 16,777,216 colors. Higher the pixel density, higher is the sharpness of the content. Bitmap images and Vector Graphics are the two major ways for compositing image pixels. 

Random scanning creates a linear expression that requires “sheding” to turn the work from two-dimensional to three-dimensional. The mindset of digital creation is different from painting. For instance, to create a tree, painting draws the appearance of a tree, whereas the concern for digital art is ways of writing codes and calculating shadows; the creative foundation is entirely based on algorithm while at the same time considering mechanics, color codes, or simulated mechanics through expressions of movement records. The works are adjusted or completed using lenses or oscilloscope, or operated through Video electronic signals.

 

河口洋一郎試圖指向「數位(Digital)」,在拉丁語中的原意是手指,遠古時慣用手指算數,對應現今發展已經表現數位最高科技了,但它來自於如此原始的起源,以此,檢視他自身的創作和科學的應用也是與自然分不開,進而引申科學發展,完全脫離人之感性的能力是不可能的!據此,他提出了「數位心智」的發展,讓藝術有新的面貌同時又關注人文精神的狀態。

Kawaguchi Yoichiro points out that the Latin word for Digital means finger. In ancient times, people used their fingers to count. Today, digital involve so much high technology, but it has such primal origins. Under this notion, the artist realizes that his scientific creations are inseparable from nature, leading him to the conclusion that it is impossible for scientific advancement to escape the human sentiments. Accordingly, Kawaguchi Yoichiro proposed the development of the digital mind, providing a new form of art while also paying attention to the humanistic spirit. 


《研究記錄》 Research Video

單頻道錄像 Single Channel Video

2min.55sec.

2010


1F走廊 1F Hallway

河口洋一郎創作發想的源頭,來自於最原始型態的生物,如:珊瑚、貝殼、章魚、水母、螃蟹、鳥;以及關於地質時代的化石、節肢動物或甲殼類、無脊椎動物等皆為他關注研究的指向。這些怪誕詭奇的生物造型,直觀上給人一種無脊椎動物蠕形、嬈舞的動態感,而出芽生殖刺絲胞動物的枝狀生長與多孔性特徵,附之亞熱帶穠麗的色彩,呈現一股原始黑潮的勃發生機,揭示了河口洋一郎對五億年前寒武紀生命大爆發,以及五億年後的未來生物將呈現何種樣貌的豐饒想像與研究格局。

The inspiration of Kawaguchi's artistic creation comes from the most primitive forms of life, such as corals, sea shells, octopuses, jelly fish, crabs, and birds. He also possesses keen interests in fossils from various geological periods, arthropods, crustaceans, and invertebrates. The peculiar and bizarre looks of the creatures in his drawings remind people of the worm-like, wriggling invertebrates with characteristics of blastogenetic cnidarians, such as dendrite propagation and porosity. They are given the vibrant and lively colors of the subtropics, beckoning at the bourgeoning life of the primitive age and revealing Kawaguchi's rich imagination and research about the Cambrian Explosion occurred 500 million years ago and the future life forms 500 million years later.

 

除了緣自於種子島天然與科學兩極化並陳的環境涵養,更出自於河口洋一郎熱衷於亞馬遜叢林、洛磯山脈及撒哈拉沙漠的探險,親自體驗大自然及生命的感動,他自言:「我的創作絕不是憑空想像、捏造,而是有一定的生物學及圖像學的基礎,同時包含對生命的情感」。這些奇思妙想的新生物,各個都隱含了河口洋一郎對生命科學的重新思考。

Kawaguchi's imagination is not only nurtured by the natural and scientific environment of his hometown,Tanegashima Island, it is also enriched by his enthusiastic adventures into the Amazon rainforest, the Rocky Mountains, and the Sahara Desert, where he has fully immersed himself in wild nature and life. The artist once said, "my work is never purely imagined and created out of thin air; it is built on a biological and iconological foundation imbued with feelings for life." That is why each of these fantastic life forms embodies Kawaguchi's reflection on life sciences. 

《手稿》 Drawing

畫布、顏料 Canvas, Oil Painting

84 x 69 cm

1989

紙、鉛筆 Paper, Pencil

72 x 94 cm

2001

紙、鉛筆 Paper, Pencil

94 x 72 cm

2002

紙、鉛筆 Paper, Pencil 

64 x 94 cm

2002

紙、鉛筆 Paper, Pencil

126 x 94 cm

2002

紙、鉛筆 Paper, pencil 

120 x 82 cm

2002

紙、鉛筆 Paper, Pencil

126 x 94 公分

2002

紙、鉛筆  Paper, Pencil 

94 x 72 cm

2002

紙、鉛筆 Paper, Pencil

94 x 64 cm

2003


106展間 R106

106展間的《成長卷鬚》是河口洋一郎於1982年在美國每年舉辦的SIGGRAPH發表的「成長模型」理論,從電腦繪圖中與展出的立體作品,除了極為瑰麗的色彩和奇異的造型,其中蘊含了許多數理之美的幾何概念,如似蕨葉蜷曲狀與貝殼的螺旋狀,即是運用「對數螺旋」的原理 (如圖示) 。而對數螺線具有像圓一樣的完美對稱性,彷彿體現在動畫影片中,無重力空間裡自體迴環、旋轉的優美姿態。

Growth Tendril shown in Room 106 are three-dimensional works created with computer graphics that were introduced during the annual SIGGRAPH in the US in 1982. These works are based on Kawaguchi Yoichiro’s Growth Model theory. Apart from the rich colors and unique design, the works contain many geometric concepts that entail the beauty of mathematics; for instance, applied in the curl of fern leaves and the spiral of sea shells is the principle of logarithmic spiral like circles, logarithmic spirals have perfect symmetry, giving it a beautiful and elegant appearance as if spiraling without gravity.

另外在珊瑚或貝螺上,像觸鬚一般嬈舞著,無數繁複甚至緻密到令感官產生壓迫感的鬚芽,是蘊藉數學家曼德布洛特(Benoit Mandelbrot)在七O年代所發展出的「碎形(Fractal)」幾何概念—在小結構上,例如簡單的小枝枒,不斷地分支再分支,如同複數演化形成結構的層層嵌套,最後變成複雜的樣式。它們的特徵都是結構上一層又一層相類似的重複,也就是以遞迴的方式反覆疊代自己的模塊,因此遞迴╱疊代的套嵌結構,所具有的自我相似性,為碎形強調的空間感形成無窮的細膩度,換言之,型態中的每一元素都反映了整個形態的呈現,隨著構成元素的變動,整個形態便有機地呈現出脫俗的動態美。

The dancing, tentacle-like, complicated and dense tendrils on the coral and shells give viewers a sense of oppression. This is an application of the geometric concept Fractal developed by mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot in the 70s, where simple branches continue to branch out like complex evolution to form multiple layers, finally forming a complex appearance with unique repeating structures. This is self-iteration through recursive methods. Therefore, the similarities to themselves within the recursive/iterative structure stress the infinite delicacy within the fractal. In other words, each element is a representation of the entire form. The overall form organically displays a mobile aesthetic distinct from before through the change of each constituted element.

 

自然界的系統演化、形態生長,本質上都具有某種規則性的疊代架構,如自然界隨處可見的雪花晶體、樹幹枝枒、血管分支、海岸沿線、雲彩的邊緣,以及天空的閃電等等。河口洋一郎以此來研究曲折的邊線、細膩的結構、複雜的圖案,不僅是在靜態的幾何學上,還有動態性的形態變化。

All systematic evolution and form of growth in the natural world are essentially iterative structures of some sort of principle, Such as snow crystals, tree branches, vascular systems, sea coasts, the edges of clouds, and even lightning bolts in the sky. Kawaguchi Yoichiro uses this to investigate curved edges, delicate structures, and complex shapes not only through static geometry but also through the dynamic changes of form. 




《成長卷鬚》Growth Tendril

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

1分36秒 1min.36sec.

1980-1982

 

玻璃纖維 FRP

30 x 50 x 20 cm

2000 

 

玻璃纖維 FRP

60 x 30 x 30 cm

2000


107展間 R107

完成於1983年的《神秘銀河》是為「成長模型」的後期發展成果。河口洋一郎於1980-1981年間研究造型參數變量的可能性,使「成長模型」發展出更多元微妙的層次和無限級數的增距。為此,他應用了很多的螺旋、貝殼與珊瑚的造型,使其生成許多的觸手、牙、角、爪等等。《神秘銀河》與《成長卷鬚》的最大不同處便是河口洋一郎用符號邏輯去改變了一些參數,參數一經調整,就會產生突變體,這個變量參數即是「元球」,也稱做變形球。它是計算機圖形學中的N維函數,其中最常用的是三維變形。

Growth: Mysterious Galaxy originates from Kawaguchi's study during 1980 and 1981, in which he explored the possibility of using variable parameters to manipulate forms. The study allows him to develop many subtle layers and increase intervals by an infinite number when creating the Growth Model in 1981. He referred to the appearance of spirals, sea shells, and corals, and grew multiple tentacles, teeth, horns, and claws. By applying symbolic logic to alter some parameters, these adjusted parameters cause mutations. This variable parameter is known as the meatball,which is defined as an N-dimensional function in computer iconology, and is most commonly used in three-dimensional deformation.

 

「元球」的特性具有可順勢變形的柔軟性與滑順的圓曲面,使《神秘銀河》一改電腦繪圖給人感覺機械式金屬感的冰冷調性;因此從畫面中可見皮膚的感覺、液體的流動或肉質的表現,體現出有機的生命感,對河口洋一郎而言,「元球」使他的作品又向前躍進一大步。

In 1983, Kawaguchi used the metaball in the works of "Growth Model," which he had been working on. The characteristics of the function allowed high flexibility that made swift changes in shapes possible; it also allowed the creation of smooth curve surfaces. This breakthrough completely changed the mechanical, metallic coldness common in computer graphics at the time. Therefore, in Growth : Mysterious Galaxy, viewers can see the fine texture of skin, the fluidity of liquid, and the expression of flesh, demonstrating the organic sense of life. For Kawaguchi, the metaball has given him the quantum leap in his work.



《神秘銀河》Growth : Mysterious Galaxy

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

1983

 

玻璃纖維 FRP

30 x 30 x 40cm

2000


108展間 R108

《失重幻象》應用「成長模型」的原理,探索生物體的血管與細胞形象,除了賦予有機的造型,相較以往不同的是,在色彩上紅綠交相間溶,具有光澤度的表現,主要關注在色彩濃密度的質感研究,因為血液與水的密度不同,他想要表現出血液濃稠的質感,因此在創作中加入了相當於生物化學團聚體的概念,是高分子有機化合物質間會先形成膠體,再進一步構成團聚體,是細胞結構的雛型,有機質的集結,試圖表現血管裡血液的內部影像,透過高畫質的動畫呈現模擬生物體血管的視覺化創作。

Cytolon uses the principle of the Growth Model to explore the image of blood vessels and cells within the human body. Apart from giving the work an organic design, the difference between Cytolon and previous works lies in the merging of green and red and its luster appearance. This work focuses on studying the texture of the density of color because the density of blood is different from water and the artist wishes to display the thick texture. Therefore, Kawaguchi Yoichiro adds a concept similar to coacervates in biochemistry: colloid forms between organic macromolecules before further forming coacervates; it is the prototype of cell structures and the gathering of organic substances. Kawaguchi attempts to create the internal visual image of blood flow within vessels, which are displayed through high definition animation. 

《失重幻象》Cytolon

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

2分29秒 2min.29sec.

2002


2樓西側樓梯 Western Stairway 2F

《金屬怪客》是河口洋一郎在2003年欲超越更高層次的畫質表現之創作。他以冷調的金屬質感呈現有如巨型恐龍體內的骨骼構造,且持續不斷地改變其架構組織。有別於以往色彩穠麗的動畫表現,《金屬怪客》轉以銀白趨近無彩的幾何圖騰,充滿了未來主義抽象的美感,不僅體現生物的風貌會隨著時間不斷蛻變的自然常態,也對應了河口洋一郎與時俱進的創作精神。

Xenion is Kawaguchi Yoichiro’s work created in 2003 that aims to achieve higher grounds of creating artificial life forms using computer simulation with the texture of liquid metal. Like a skeletal system of a huge dinosaur's body,  the work shows Kawaguchi’s imagination of the living body’s inner universe which constantly changes its form. What’s more, the images are presented with higher definitions to display the surface’s metallic texture. Apart from colorful computer graphics, Kawaguchi uses Silver-colored geometric shapes which reveals a futuristic abstract beauty.

《金屬怪客》Xenion

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

3分29秒 3min.29sec.

2003


205展間 R205

「成長、基因+情緒=感性模擬」,是河口洋一郎對互動藝術的觀點。

打破人們現今對影像作品的常態認知,藉由將影像擬人化,模糊虛擬世界和現實世界的界線;而透過電腦來模擬生物的感性,也為創作帶來栩栩如生的生命感。這就是「感性模擬」的起源。

Growth, genes + emotions = Gemotion; this is Kawaguchi Yoichiro’s perspective toward interactive art.

Breaking through the common notion of video works, Kawaguchi Yoichiro personifies the images, blurring the boundary between the real world and the virtual world. The artist uses the computer to simulate the sensibility of organisms while bringing a sense of liveliness to the works. This is the birthplace of Gemotion.

 

河口洋一郎自述:「我們會感覺到影像的膨脹或者是收縮,是因為我們接收到的不只是視覺上的影像,而是景像所營造出的空間感。『感性模擬』的開端,就是希望能夠提供一種方式讓生物可以和電腦互相溝通;藉由兩邊的思考、技術、與表達方式的協調,進而透過成長、進化、與成長模型圖像的影響因子來使互動成立。我想把這個互動界面帶到人們的面前,讓他們近距離地感受這種溝通模式。」

Kawaguchi Yoichiro states that: “The reason why we get the feeling that images expand or contract is that what we see is not restricted to visual images. It requires the technique to produce spaciousness to achieve the self-proliferation effect of images. Gemotion hopes to provide a way for living creatures to communicate with computers, using the coordination of thoughts, technology, and expressions from either side to enable interaction through the impact factor of growth, evolution, and heredity of the Growth Model images. I hope to present this interface of interaction to people and give them a chance of experiencing it within a close distance.”

 

《感性模擬互動紀錄》即是側指了河口洋一郎將日本獨有的歌舞伎表演與電腦繪圖動畫作品互動的實例。作為延續日本傳統文化之一的和服,除了傳承著典儀之美,也隱含著精染與服誌的工藝遺緒,河口洋一郎將他已發展出高端科技的影像成果,讓作品與傳統相結合,加入了自己國家的文化傳統元素,藉此引申「用最先進的技術,述說最古老的智慧」。

Documentation of Interactive CG with Traditional Dance Performance is an example of interaction between the Kabuki, a classical Japanese dace-drama, and Kawaguch's interactive computer graphics. The kimono, here as an extension of traditional Japanese culture, not only inherits the beauty of the ceremony but also implies the legacy of fine dye and clothing. Kawaguchi Yoichiro uses high-tech methods to combine the artworks with tradition. The addition of elements of traditional culture from his native country expresses the further concept of “recounting the most ancient wisdom with the most advanced technology.”


《感性模擬互動紀錄》

Documentation of Interactive CG with Traditional Dance Performance

單頻道錄像 Single Channel Video

4分15秒 4min.15sec.

2001-2002

《電腦和服誌》CG Kimono

數位印刷、布料 Digital-print, Fabric

190 x 170 x 10 cm

2007


204展間 R204

204展間由液體粒子動力學的電腦繪圖,與雕塑作品來想像生活在多維度空間的宇宙魚。透過流體力學所研究的方向,包括:流體的平移、轉動以及變形率,描述並分析流體粒子的運動以及流動的情況。然而流體粒子間的互相作用,不能僅靠運動學來求出流體的速度及加速度,必須在運動的流體做動態分析,才能求出流體及其周圍對流體運動的影響。流體粒子間的相對運動,在動態分析中,流體摩擦力佔非常重要的部分,這些大多應用於天體物理學、生物學、氣象學等1。物理模擬的電腦繪圖動畫與《宇宙魚》互為表裡,藉此模擬物體在各種方向與個體靜止的雕像互動,也模擬了透鏡晶亮的反光質感,表現出4D的效果。

註:翁通楹,〈流體力學〉《中華百科全書》,網站:http://ap6.pccu.edu.tw/Encyclopedia/data.asp?id=5552

Computer graphic Physical Simulation : Fluid and Particle Dynamics and sculpture work Ficco in Room 204 encourages the viewer to imagine a fish living in a multi-dimensional space. Through the research of Hydromechanics, including the translate, spin, and deformation rate of fluids, it describes and analyzes the movement of fluid particles and its fluidity. However, the interaction between fluid particles, such as the speed and acceleration of fluids, cannot be obtained through kinematics. Instead, a dynamic analysis must be applied to know the influence of the moving fluid on its surroundings. Within the dynamic analysis of relative fluidity between fluid particles, fluid friction is a very important component; these are mostly used in areas such as astrophysics, biology, and meteorology (Note 3). The computer graphic of physical simulation and Ficco supplement each other. This simulation is used to interact with the still sculptures in all directions while also simulating the bright reflective texture of the lens, creating a four-dimensional effect.

《宇宙魚:液體粒子動力學》Physical Simulation : Fluid and Particle Dynamics

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

3分58秒 3min.58sec.

2006-2007

 

《宇宙魚》Ficco 

玻璃纖維 FRP

120 x 100 x 60 cm 

2000 


203展間 R203

河口洋一郎表示,他對深海的生物特別感興趣,因此運用這些生物作為創作電腦動畫的靈感;他也認為,藝術要從三次元的「空間」加上「時間」來表現,大家觀看靜態的物體時,可以想像從時間的演進來看待物體的變化。

To express his passion for creatures in the deep sea, Kawasuchi uses these organisms as inspirations of creating computer graphics. Kawaguchi believes that, art should convey messages through three-dimensional “space” with the concept of “time.” When silently observing the still objects, visitors can also examine the changes of the objects through the evolution of time.

《宇宙蟹》Cracco(CG)

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

1分32秒 1min.32sec.

2000

《宇宙魚》Ficco 

玻璃纖維 FRP

100 x 80 x 80 cm

2010


R202走廊 202展間 202 Hallway,R202

《五億年的未來工作坊》邀請觀眾為展牆上的《宇宙蟹》畫上自己喜愛的顏色。

《宇宙蟹》單頻道紀實錄像與教育工作坊的設置,希冀藉由展覽讓大眾認識電腦不僅是技術為導向的專業,運用高端科技研發的程式編寫或軟體設計,也可以發展出獨特的美感呈現。這些透過數理演算的電腦動畫,如同柏拉圖表示:「實際的星辰只不過是數學的一種表達,就如抽象的點、線及圓被幾何圖形所表達一樣」,數學之美是構成它自身基礎原理的簡單之美,這也就是柏拉圖所言說的「數學的蒼穹」。透過教育的觀點,以碎形或非線性混沌這類的確定型方程式,所製作出來關於秩序美或簡單美的圖形,讓觀眾的參與走入作品,使觀賞成為藝術再創造的一部分,同時激勵學習探求的興趣。

Cracco Workshop invites the audiences to color four giant Cracco on the walls.The arrangement of single channel video Documentation of Cracco Balloon and the educational workshop aims to allow the opportunity for visitors to learn that computers are not merely a technology-oriented profession using high-tech development codes or software designs, but are also tools that are capable of creating unique beauty. Kawaguch's computer graphics created through mathematical calculus echo Plato’s statement: “Actual stars are merely a form of mathematical expression, like an abstract point, line, and circle expressed by a geometrical shape.” The beauty of mathematics lies in the simplicity of its fundamental principles, which are, in Plato’s words, “mathematical universes.” Using deterministic equations such as Fractal or Non-linear Chaos through the perspective of education, these shapes that convey the beauty of order or simplicity enable viewers to engage in the works, allowing the act of observation to be part of re-creation, at the same time encouraging the interest in learning and exploring. 

 

《宇宙蟹》Documentation of Cracco Balloon 

單頻道錄像Single Channel Video

1分 1min.

2000



《五億年的未來工作坊》CRACCO WORKSHOP


201展間 R201

201展間分別展出了高畫質電腦繪圖動畫、大型氣球裝置、書籍文獻,以及以屏風形式展出的彩色手稿。透過大屏幕映現的《衍化萬花筒》是由三件短片組成,分別是《生命之花》、《失重樂園》、以及《魅惑星雲》。《生命之花》是河口洋一郎與電腦音樂家陶德.麥區歐佛共同製作而成,影片呈現了一叢在溫暖微光中閃耀的神祕花朵之生長旅程。《失重樂園》則是藉由極高彩度的色澤、高濃密的黏稠空間呈現,帶給觀者感官的重負感與視覺的壓迫性,彷彿道出一種生命的必須。《魅惑星雲》則是河口洋一郎對宇宙盡頭的想像;歷經長久以來時空不斷地轉化,宇宙最終變成一個濃密的泡沫漩渦,無止盡地迴旋…。

Displayed in Room 201 is a combination of high-resolution computer graphics, balloon sculpture installations, documents, and Eggy Boy Balloon with different skin tones, and colorful drawing folding panels. Three HD CG animations, Flora, Eggy, and Nebular are shown through a large screen, Flora, created by Kawaguchi and American musician Tod Machover, recounts a growth journey of a mysterious flower. Eggy hints to the flowing, thick, blood-like liquid within an enlarged vascular tissue. Nebular represents Kawaguchi’s imagination toward the end of the deep universe that continues to change its form till now, as a time space generated with foam concentration. This trilogy guides the viewer into a space with high saturation and high density, which seem to be the necessity of life, while inducing a compressing sensation and visual pressure. 

 

巨大的氣球裝置作品《複眼宇宙蝶》及《蛋寶寶》,除了賦予雕塑一種呼吸的意象,氣球媒材的「輕」也隱含了一種無重力的漂浮感;而屏風上手繪的宇宙生物有怪誕的、巧拙的、富麗絕美的各種魔幻生物,使得201展間的大場域,猶如是明日星球的失重樂園。

In addition, not only does the large balloon installations Bucco-Multi Dimensional Butterfly and Eggy Boy Balloon seem to be breathing, the light-weighted nature of the balloon material also entails a floating sensation of weightlessness. Hand painted on the folded panel are various bizarre, canny, and magnificent magical creatures of the universe, transforming Room 201 into a weightless playground of a future planet.



《衍化萬花筒》Flora, Eggy, Nebular

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

10分17秒 10min.17sec.

1990-2017

《複眼宇宙蝶》Bucco -Multi Dimensional Butterfly

塑膠 Plastic

350 x 300 x 250 cm

2008

 

塑膠 Plastic

250 x 300 x 250cm

2010

《蛋寶寶》Eggy Boy Balloon

塑膠 Plastic

170 x 100 x 100 cm

2008-2009

《手稿屏風》Folding Panel

數位輸出、木板  Print, Wooden Board

100 x 182 x 1 cm

2000


出口樓梯 Stairway to Exit

90年代,新媒體科技走向高畫質的播放器,河口洋一郎即開始研究Super HDTV最後發展至Ultra HDTV。他回視自己創作自《Eggy》時期的前後,皆是以「成長模型」為基礎的電腦繪圖,並以地球上的生物做為幻想的根源,這個由個體發展至團體以至形成一個群落時,如同以他電腦模擬人工智慧的種種發展,那麼電腦是否也可以發展它自己的生物呢?於是《細胞:自組化的人工生命都市》應運而生。

Since new media technology started shifting towards high-definition players in the 90s, Kawaguchi began studying Super HDTV, which later evolved into Ultra HDTV. Looking back around the time when he created Eggy in the 80s, his works were created through computer graphics based on “Growth Models” with a theoretical basis that living creature on the Earth evolved from individuals to groups and finally communities, just like his computer simulations of developments of artificial intelligence. Are computers capable of developing its own unique organism? This became the birthplace of Artificial Life Metropolis-cell.

 

「複雜來自簡單」。1993年他完全跳脫成長模式的思維,以更簡單Zoom in╱Zoom out的算式與基本迴旋的動作,回歸到一個單純的方式。對於電腦生成的組織細節,他以液體金屬形塑而成的人工生物,只有存在於高畫質呈現的闇黑宇宙環境中,所有物體都能在電子空間中自發地自我增殖衍生,漸次形成一座人工生命都市。雖然色度接近於極簡黑白色系,但這些人工生命體的表面所覆蓋的外膜,卻有著獨特的冷光液態質感,而這些擬態的細微部分,皆是經過電腦縝密的運算所得來。

Complexity arises from simplicity.In 1993, Kawaguchi escaped the mindset of Growth Models and applied simple Zoom in╱Zoom out calculation and basic rotation motions, returning to simple methods. As for the computer-generated tissue details, Kawaguchi used artificial organism created with liquid metal that are placed in HDTV pitch black universe environments; under these circumstances, the organisms were able to self-proliferate and multiply into an artificial city of life in the electrical environment. However, despite the near black-and-white minimalist chroma, the skin covered on the outer layer of these artificial life forms have a unique liquid texture and cool light quality, while the details of the simulation were created through precise computer operation.

《細胞:自組化的人工生命都市》Artificial Life Metropolis-Cell

電腦繪圖 Computer Graphics

3分34秒 3min.34sec.

1993

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